The cells that make up the organism are different in terms of division, growth and growth. Some cells remain “silent" to divide when stimulated by appropriate signals. Cells that can divide for a long time in the living body, regenerate themselves and at the same time differentiate according to need and turn into other tissue cells are called ‘stem cells’. Stem cells can transform from a single cell into more than one cell series and functionally reconstruct a tissue.
Types of Stem Cells
The ability of stem cells obtained from a tissue to be transformed into different tissue cells with appropriate stimuli in the appropriate medium has been demonstrated. The first cells that fall into the womb are embryonic stem cells with the potential to turn into all the cells in the body. These cells can differentiate into all cell types that can form a complete and functioning organism. Adult stem cells also produce the cell type of the tissue in which they are found. These cells are found in the adult body, especially bone marrow and adipose tissue. Adult stem cells are seen at later stages of development than embryonic stem cells and, although more limited, can renew themselves for life. They are able to differentiate into precursor and specialized cells in adult tissues. Adult stem cells, which can only be transformed into several cell types in the organism, can be transformed into many different cell types when the necessary medium and signals are provided under laboratory conditions. In normal physiological state, adult stem cells can remain in the “silent period” for a long time. When they leave their silent period, they renew themselves or become a precursor cell, depending on the effect of internal and external stimulating signals. It is reported that pluripotent stem cells obtained from adipose tissue have the ability to differentiate as stem cells from bone marrow.
Diseases of which stem cells are used
Differentiated cells such as brain and nerve, heart muscle, cartilage cannot be regenerated naturally when they are seriously damaged by aging, trauma and degenerative diseases. Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into different cell types have been able to be transformed into the required cell types if their proliferation is controlled. It is envisaged that stem cells can be used if the cells that make up the organism are damaged or killed. Nowadays, stem cells obtained from adult tissues are differentiated into many cell types by creating suitable environment and conditions. However, the proliferation control mechanisms and genetic structures of the differentiated cells need to be well known for their therapeutic use. The transfer of the cells - tissues or organs to be formed from these cells to the damaged area will pave the way for their regenerative and restorative treatments. Efforts are underway to ensure that stem cells can be used in many disease groups, including heart muscle regeneration, degenerative and inflammatory cartilage and bone diseases, diabetes in the stem cells, the regeneration of blood vessels that have lost their function due to atherosclerosis, diseases of the central nervous system such as Parkinson and Alzheimer's, spinal cord injuries, liver damage and various cancers.